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    <h1 class="maintitle">Analyzing Data from Multiple Files</h1>
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<blockquote class="objectives">
  <h2>Overview</h2>

  <div class="row">
    <div class="col-md-3">
      <strong>Teaching:</strong> 20 min
      <br/>
      <strong>Exercises:</strong> 0 min
    </div>
    <div class="col-md-9">
      <strong>Questions</strong>
      <ul>
	
	<li><p>How can I do the same operations on many different files?</p>
</li>
	
      </ul>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div class="row">
    <div class="col-md-3">
    </div>
    <div class="col-md-9">
      <strong>Objectives</strong>
      <ul>
	
	<li><p>Use a library function to get a list of filenames that match a wildcard pattern.</p>
</li>
	
	<li><p>Write a <code class="highlighter-rouge">for</code> loop to process multiple files.</p>
</li>
	
      </ul>
    </div>
  </div>

</blockquote>

<p>We now have almost everything we need to process all our data files.
The only thing that’s missing is a library with a rather unpleasant name:</p>

<div class="python highlighter-rouge"><pre class="highlight"><code>import glob
</code></pre>
</div>

<p>The <code class="highlighter-rouge">glob</code> library contains a function, also called <code class="highlighter-rouge">glob</code>,
that finds files and directories whose names match a pattern.
We provide those patterns as strings:
the character <code class="highlighter-rouge">*</code> matches zero or more characters,
while <code class="highlighter-rouge">?</code> matches any one character.
We can use this to get the names of all the CSV files in the current directory:</p>

<div class="python highlighter-rouge"><pre class="highlight"><code>print(glob.glob('inflammation*.csv'))
</code></pre>
</div>

<div class="output highlighter-rouge"><pre class="highlight"><code>['inflammation-05.csv', 'inflammation-11.csv', 'inflammation-12.csv', 'inflammation-08.csv', 'inflammation-03.csv', 'inflammation-06.csv', 'inflammation-09.csv', 'inflammation-07.csv', 'inflammation-10.csv', 'inflammation-02.csv', 'inflammation-04.csv', 'inflammation-01.csv']
</code></pre>
</div>

<p>As these examples show,
<code class="highlighter-rouge">glob.glob</code>’s result is a list of file and directory paths in arbitrary order.
This means we can loop over it
to do something with each filename in turn.
In our case,
the “something” we want to do is generate a set of plots for each file in our inflammation dataset.
If we want to start by analyzing just the first three files in alphabetical order, we can use the <code class="highlighter-rouge">sorted</code> built-in function to generate a new sorted list from the <code class="highlighter-rouge">glob.glob</code> output:</p>

<div class="python highlighter-rouge"><pre class="highlight"><code>import numpy
import matplotlib.pyplot

filenames = sorted(glob.glob('inflammation*.csv'))
filenames = filenames[0:3]
for f in filenames:
    print(f)

    data = numpy.loadtxt(fname=f, delimiter=',')

    fig = matplotlib.pyplot.figure(figsize=(10.0, 3.0))

    axes1 = fig.add_subplot(1, 3, 1)
    axes2 = fig.add_subplot(1, 3, 2)
    axes3 = fig.add_subplot(1, 3, 3)

    axes1.set_ylabel('average')
    axes1.plot(numpy.mean(data, axis=0))

    axes2.set_ylabel('max')
    axes2.plot(numpy.max(data, axis=0))

    axes3.set_ylabel('min')
    axes3.plot(numpy.min(data, axis=0))

    fig.tight_layout()
    matplotlib.pyplot.show()
</code></pre>
</div>

<div class="output highlighter-rouge"><pre class="highlight"><code>inflammation-01.csv
</code></pre>
</div>

<p><img src="../fig/03-loop_49_1.png" alt="Analysis of inflammation-01.csv" /></p>

<div class="output highlighter-rouge"><pre class="highlight"><code>inflammation-02.csv
</code></pre>
</div>

<p><img src="../fig/03-loop_49_3.png" alt="Analysis of inflammation-02.csv" /></p>

<div class="output highlighter-rouge"><pre class="highlight"><code>inflammation-03.csv
</code></pre>
</div>

<p><img src="../fig/03-loop_49_5.png" alt="Analysis of inflammation-03.csv" /></p>

<p>Sure enough,
the maxima of the first two data sets show exactly the same ramp as the first,
and their minima show the same staircase structure;
a different situation has been revealed in the third dataset,
where the maxima are a bit less regular, but the minima are consistently zero.</p>

<blockquote class="challenge">
  <h2 id="plotting-differences">Plotting Differences</h2>

  <p>Plot the difference between the average of the first dataset
and the average of the second dataset,
i.e., the difference between the leftmost plot of the first two figures.</p>

  <blockquote class="solution">
    <h2 id="solution">Solution</h2>
    <div class="python highlighter-rouge"><pre class="highlight"><code>import glob
import numpy
import matplotlib.pyplot

filenames = glob.glob('inflammation*.csv')

data0 = numpy.loadtxt(fname=filenames[0], delimiter=',')
data1 = numpy.loadtxt(fname=filenames[1], delimiter=',')

fig = matplotlib.pyplot.figure(figsize=(10.0, 3.0))

matplotlib.pyplot.ylabel('Difference in average')
matplotlib.pyplot.plot(data0.mean(axis=0) - data1.mean(axis=0))

fig.tight_layout()
matplotlib.pyplot.show()
</code></pre>
    </div>
  </blockquote>
</blockquote>

<blockquote class="challenge">
  <h2 id="generate-composite-statistics">Generate Composite Statistics</h2>

  <p>Use each of the files once to generate a dataset containing values averaged over all patients:</p>

  <div class="python highlighter-rouge"><pre class="highlight"><code>filenames = glob.glob('inflammation*.csv')
composite_data = numpy.zeros((60,40))
for f in filenames:
    # sum each new file's data into as it's read
    #
# and then divide the composite_data by number of samples
composite_data /= len(filenames)
</code></pre>
  </div>

  <p>Then use pyplot to generate average, max, and min for all patients.</p>

  <blockquote class="solution">
    <h2 id="solution-1">Solution</h2>
    <div class="python highlighter-rouge"><pre class="highlight"><code>import glob
import numpy
import matplotlib.pyplot

filenames = glob.glob('data/inflammation*.csv')
composite_data = numpy.zeros((60,40))

for f in filenames:
    data = numpy.loadtxt(fname = f, delimiter=',')
    composite_data += data

composite_data/=len(filenames)

fig = matplotlib.pyplot.figure(figsize=(10.0, 3.0))

axes1 = fig.add_subplot(1, 3, 1)
axes2 = fig.add_subplot(1, 3, 2)
axes3 = fig.add_subplot(1, 3, 3)

axes1.set_ylabel('average')
axes1.plot(numpy.mean(composite_data, axis=0))

axes2.set_ylabel('max')
axes2.plot(numpy.max(composite_data, axis=0))

axes3.set_ylabel('min')
axes3.plot(numpy.min(composite_data, axis=0))

fig.tight_layout()

matplotlib.pyplot.show()
</code></pre>
    </div>
  </blockquote>
</blockquote>


<blockquote class="keypoints">
  <h2>Key Points</h2>
  <ul>
    
    <li><p>Use <code class="highlighter-rouge">glob.glob(pattern)</code> to create a list of files whose names match a pattern.</p>
</li>
    
    <li><p>Use <code class="highlighter-rouge">*</code> in a pattern to match zero or more characters, and <code class="highlighter-rouge">?</code> to match any single character.</p>
</li>
    
  </ul>
</blockquote>

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