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# Exposure Model Japan

This project includes a set of scripts to create a building exposure model for Japan using the Japanese census data (found here: [E-STAT-JP](https://www.e-stat.go.jp/en)). An exposure model describes the spatial distribution of buildings and dwellings, as well as their replacement cost and number of people that occupy them. 

In the present model, the latter are defined by identifying the average size of a dwelling (area in square meters), the replacement cost per unit of area of a dwelling (area in square meters), the number of dwellings per building or per storey, the number of storeys per building, and the number of people per dwelling, all this for each relevant building class. Building classes are defined based on the parameters available from the census, such as the material and number of storeys.

The spatial distribution of buildings is carried out herein for different regional levels of Japan (shi (市), ku (区), machi (町) or mura (村)). 

This exposure model serves as input to the [Global Dynamic Exposure model (GDE)](https://git.gfz-potsdam.de/dynamicexposure/globaldynamicexposure/gde-calculations).

Building class:
A building class describes the main characteristics of a building according to a [building taxonomy](https://storage.globalquakemodel.org/what/physical-integrated-risk/building-taxonomy/), that is, a pre-defined classification schema. In the present model the [GEM Building Taxonomy](https://storage.globalquakemodel.org/resources/publications/technical-reports/gem-building-taxonomy-report/) is used which includes around [400 characteristics of a building](https://taxonomy.openquake.org/). The building class is thus represented by a concatenation of attribute IDs whose meaning is defined in the Taxonomy. 
Example of a building class assigned to a building: `W/WHE/LFM/H:1`, where `W` = Wood, `WHE` = Heavy Wood, `LFM` = Moment Frame, `H:1` = 1 story. 

Census parameters mapped to building classes: 
Material, number of storeys, date of construction, type of building (apartments, tenements, detached houses).

Parameters defined for each building class (and region): 
Average size of a dwelling (area in square meters), replacement cost per unit of area of a dwelling (area in square meters), number of dwellings per building or per storey, number of storeys per building, number of people per dwelling.

## Data Sources

| Data Type and Source |
|------ |
| [Number of buildings](https://www.e-stat.go.jp/en/stat-search/files?page=1&layout=datalist&toukei=00200522&tstat=000001127155&cycle=0&tclass1=000001129435&tclass2=000001129436&stat_infid=000031865738&tclass3val=0) |
| [Number of dwellings](https://www.e-stat.go.jp/en/stat-search/files?page=1&layout=datalist&toukei=00200522&tstat=000001127155&cycle=0&tclass1=000001129435&tclass2=000001129436&stat_infid=000031865685&tclass3val=0) |
| [Number of households](https://www.e-stat.go.jp/gis/statmap-search?page=1&type=1&toukeiCode=00200521&toukeiYear=2015&aggregateUnit=A&serveyId=A002005212015&statsId=T000848) |
| [Population](https://www.e-stat.go.jp/gis/statmap-search?page=1&type=1&toukeiCode=00200521) |
| [Floor space area per dwelling (square meters)](https://www.e-stat.go.jp/en/stat-search/files?page=1&layout=datalist&toukei=00200522&tstat=000001127155&cycle=0&tclass1=000001129435&tclass2=000001129436&stat_infid=000031865710&tclass3val=0) |
| [Household members](https://www.e-stat.go.jp/en/stat-search/files?page=1&layout=datalist&toukei=00200522&tstat=000001127155&cycle=0&tclass1=000001129435&tclass2=000001129436&stat_infid=000031865706&tclass3val=0) |

Terms of use for the portal site of official statistics of Japan ([E-STAT-JP](https://www.e-stat.go.jp/en)): Information made available on this website may be freely used, copied, publicly transmitted, translated or otherwise modified on condition that the user complies with provisions 1) to 6) as stated in terms of use. See [TERMS OF USE](https://git.gfz-potsdam.de/dynamicexposure/globaldynamicexposure/exposure-japan/-/blob/copyrights/termsofuse-estat) for the full terms of use.

## Requirements

- Python 3.x
- Numpy (1.13.3 or later)
- Pandas (0.22.0 or later)
- h5py (2.7.1 or later):

## Copyright and copyleft 

Copyright (C) 2020-2021

* Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at
your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Affero
General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
along with this program. If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

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